Yi Yi (2000)

Films transport us through a vast ocean in the spectrum of emotions. Happiness, sadness, anger, frustration, and pure bliss are just some examples. They also convey amplified yet sometimes realistic portrayals of life events which themselves stir the deepest sentiments in viewers. Those very tales may have occurred in the past, present, or are impending in the lives of those who are engulfed in the film’s reality. The beautiful 2000 film “Yi Yi” directed by Edward Yang is one of the greatest examples of everyday characters highly representative of many moviegoers. One of the characters in the film states that “movies give us twice what we get from daily life” by living vicariously through their eyes, hearts, thoughts, and actions.

The story focuses on the intergenerational Jian family from Taipei. Each member faces trials and tribulations that are central within their particular stages of life. The adorable eight-year-old Yang-Yang (Jonathan Chang) is quite the school prankster but is extremely inquisitive in trying to understand life’s truths. His teenage sister Ting-Ting (Kelly Lee) is challenged by friendship, loyalty, lust, and loss. Their parents, NJ (Nianzhen Wu) and Min-Min (Elaine Jin), are separately questioning the course of their life trajectories. Their maternal grandmother (Ruyun Tang) suffered a hemorrhagic stroke early in the film, and family members aim to provide care and comfort in her final days on Earth. The film also traverses through a variety of life events, including a wedding, a funeral, a business trip, a Buddhist retreat, and a birth. Many other characters interact through each family member’s storyline and these events, playing integral roles in reflection and personal growth via various interweaving perspectives and differences.

There was one exceptional detail of cinematography that I found quite intriguing in this film – the use of glass and mirrors. Often, there would be two differing scenarios reflected by two sides of glass, usually a windowpane. The simultaneous struggles of two separate individuals were mirrored within the same frame, alluding to humanity’s worldwide daily clashes and endeavours. The use of mirrors would reflect the emotions felt by the characters in a 360-degree realm, a point accentuated by Yang-Yang. He feels as if he needs to look at the back and front of a person to truly appreciate their emotional undercurrents, and this technique allows us as viewers to do the same.

The title “Yi Yi” translates to “A One and a Two”. That particular phrase is commonly used as a brief warm-up signal prior to a musical performance. In relation to the film, NJ reveals to a potential business partner that he ended a romantic relationship secondary to the partner’s lack of appreciation for music. That action impacted his future, just as decisions made within the arrangement of a musical composition can dictate many facets of its performance. Extending beyond that example, there are many within the film warning of probable conflicts. Approaches and compositions in preventing turmoil can be quite different. Every decision we make can have positive or negative consequences, and we must face the outcomes if possible with great composure and consideration. In other words, it is important to manage our roles in life patiently – one step at a time.


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The Whales of August (1987)

It is a well-known certainty that family members, while in the same bloodline, may have highly differing personalities. This can create and augment conflicts varying from furniture arrangement to political opinions. Tension may even heighten to a point of estrangement. This step may be necessary, as each familial dispute is highly contextual. In many circumstances and despite disagreements, family members can reconvene and support one another through celebrations as well as trying trials and tribulations. As individuals age, it is essential that the support of family members shine so that their elderly loved ones receive well-deserved attention and care. “The Whales of August” is a 1987 film directed by Lindsay Anderson whereby the necessities of support are central to the survival and quality of life of the main characters.

Libby Strong (Bette Davis) and Sarah Webber (Lillian Gish) are two elderly sisters living together in their childhood beach home on the beautiful coast of Maine. With loss of her vision, the death of her husband, and distancing of her daughter, Sarah cares for Libby on a daily basis. Their personas contrast greatly. Sarah is mild-mannered, welcoming, and still hopeful for life’s unique challenges and promises. Libby appears to be more brash, aloof, and pessimistic. This mix could lead to a seemingly cantankerous relationship. Other vibrant characters contributing to their daily routine include upbeat meddler Tish Doughty (Ann Sothern who was nominated for an Academy Award for her role), debonair Russian nobleman Nicholas Maranov (Vincent Price), and noisy handyman Joshua Brackett (Harry Carey, Jr.). Their interactions throughout the film reveal cumulative loss in many facets of life, the reality of impending death, the treasury of friendship, and the beauty of our natural surroundings.

The magnitude of star power in this film is absolutely spellbinding. Vincent Price is a vital figure in horror and suspense cinema, Ann Sothern is a strong presence in the history of TV and film, Harry Carey Jr. is a renowned character actor, and Lillian Gish is one of the most recognizable faces and pioneers in silent film. To me, Bette Davis is one of the most brilliant and fearless actresses in the history of cinema. She was quite frail at this point in her life. She had suffered several strokes in 1983 post-mastectomy relating to breast cancer as well as major familial conflict. However, her courage, determination, and ferocity shine through in this wonderful role as always.

Whales are frequently mentioned throughout the film. Their presence in the nearby ocean marks the impending change of seasons, but I feel that they symbolically represent nostalgia, home, and a portal to a more youthful past amongst the characters. As individuals grow older at any point in their life, they often lament and pine for more carefree days. Fears relating to health, time, and regret may cloud the present. However, this film demonstrates that a rich life, change of perspective, and subsequent flexibility of ideas can persist well into old age.


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This post is part of the Second Annual Bette Davis Blogathon hosted by Crystal of In the Good Old Days of Classic Hollywood. Please click on the link and head to her blog to read excellent tributes and movie reviews about this legendary, trailblazing actress!


Yojimbo (1961) & Sanjuro (1962): Double Feature

Loyalty is a driving force behind many of our actions. The bonds of friendship, family entanglements, workplace duties, and an overall sense of respect and love for fellow humans motivate a conglomerate of purposeful activities. While our choices are often rooted with positive intentions, they may also be fuelled by fear, dishonesty, and betrayal. Unyielding overarching power may dictate decisions and planning within allegiances, and any moral compass may be tossed aside to feed egos. Themes of this nature are pervasive in the 1961 film “Yojimbo” and the 1962 film “Sanjuro”, directed by one of the masters of cinema, Akira Kurosawa.

Both of these films follow two distinct journeys of a nameless yet impeccably skilled ronin, played by frequent Kurosawa collaborator Toshiro Mifune. When asked his name, he reports that his given name is “Sanjuro” (translated means thirty years old, although he claims to be “close to forty”) and his surname references species of nearby plants or vegetation. The stories in each film have different content. In “Yojimbo”, Sanjuro opts to continue his stay in an economically challenged town now overrun with opposing gangs. In the eponymous film, he aids a group of young samurai in challenging a seemingly powerful superintendent who has captured the leader’s morally sound uncle. Our fearless, shrewd, and wearied swordsman consistently champions against corruption. He also “can’t fight on an empty stomach”. Resounding commonalities weaving these stories together include betrayal, loyalty, facades, corruption, and friendship among other themes. Kurosawa’s impeccable cinematography draws us into the samurai world of mid-19th century, permitting us to form strong connections with the endearing and spiteful.

The word “yojimbo”translates into the word “bodyguard” in English. Indeed, that was Sanjuro’s initial goal within the battered Japanese community he encountered in the first film. While being a bodyguard or samurai for another perceivably more powerful individual could bring prestige and nobility, freedom and individuality is lost. Sanjuro uses his intellect to forge fragile alliances, and is completely aware that he must rely on them for survival and for the preservation of social justice. Uncertainty and dread is always palpable, but his autonomy remains of central importance. I feel as if this concept is central to Sanjuro’s character development, as he appears to be more grounded in his knowledge and sense of self in the latter film. I believe that he reminds audiences of the importance of discovering and maintaining an authentic identity in their life course. It is essential to protect this commodity, as individuals themselves can duplicate only their uniqueness. Overall, the process of self-discovery and self-love attunes us towards our passions and talents, which can then be used to protect and advocate for those most vulnerable.


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The Tree of Wooden Clogs (1978)

Divisions and inequities between social classes have plagued the well-being of a multitude of societies for centuries. One major contributor to this boundary has been the wealthy profiting from the hard work of labourers. The truck system once used by merchants and fishermen in the nineteenth century in my home province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada is one example of this exploitation. International demand and poor supply of codfish were important factors in determining the amount of credit that fishermen would receive in a season. However, merchants often engrossingly controlled this credit system. Many fishermen would remain in debt or barely make ends meet despite their arduous and sometimes life-threatening work. This type of working environment and indomitable power created constant fear and poverty. “The Tree of Wooden Clogs”, a 1978 Italian film directed by Ermanno Olmi, explores a similar contentious, fragile relationship between landowners and farmers in nineteenth century Italy.

Many joyous and trying stories envelop this film with bleak yet beautiful cinematography. The lives and alliances of four families harvesting vegetables and livestock are examined with a gradual pace, allowing the tales to humorously and sometimes tragically unfold as nature intended. Their rich landlord profits two thirds of their yearly harvest, a blatant exploitation of his tenants’ patience, talents, intelligence, and fortitude. In spite of this, the families collectively find solace in hope, religion, laughter, and support from one another. The sheer will and strength needed to survive in these often dire conditions is a testament to the mutual affection and respect shared between these families. I feel that a large aspect of the film’s authenticity lies in the actors and actresses originating from the farming province of Bergamo in Italy. This definitely allows for a heightened sense of awareness and connection to the hardships and successes of the types of stories portrayed in the film.

The title of the film refers to one instrumental storyline. Batisti (Luigi Ornaghi) recognizes that his young son Minec (Omar Brignoli) is having difficulty walking the collective eight miles to and from school daily secondary to his dilapidated clogs. He boldly chops down part of a tree on a well-traversed path by the landlord to lovingly construct new clogs for his son, as the family cannot afford to purchase new shoes. Batisti is highly aware of the gravity and potential financial consequences of his deed, but ignores these regulations to momentarily improve the well-being of his son. While his fears echo the utter hypocrisy of maltreatment of the poor, his defiance of “order” demonstrates that love and devotion always extend far beyond petty rules. The type of bravery and gumption that Batisti exercised has been demonstrated worldwide in many seemingly small acts. While some have led to persecution, others have led to the creation of unions and advancement in human rights. While sometimes difficult and resisted, doing what is right is the ultimate victory for humanity as a whole.


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As well, here is a link about the truck credit system: http://www.heritage.nf.ca/articles/economy/truck-system.php

The Cook, the Thief, His Wife, & Her Lover (1989)

The unfortunate reality of oppression and tyranny continues to reign in various facets of society, from households to governments. The sheer bravado, sense of entitlement, and perception of power that shrouds those in control creates an alternative truth from the actualities of the world in which they live. All of this heightened greed serves to further destroy and suppress the desires and wishes of those dependent on these deemed leaders. However, borne from this suffering often comes protest, revenge, and ultimately poetic and social justice. “The Cook, the Thief, His Wife, and Her Lover” is a delicious (no pun intended) satire directed by Peter Greenaway which addresses this common historical tale with style, wit, dark humour, and vengeance.

The title is most appropriate for the film, as the crux of the story revolves around the four aforementioned characters. Richard Boarst (Richard Bohringer) is the devoted and knowledgeable head chef of the prestigious “Le Hollandaise” restaurant. He is overrun and owned by the ruthless, bolstering, and possessive buffoon, Albert Spica (Michael Gambon). Spica frequents the restaurant every night with his band of unmerry men (quite the opposite of Robin Hood) whereby he abuses any customer, friend, or foe who slightly displeases him. His classy yet unfortunate wife, Georgina (the fabulous Helen Mirren), is trapped in a highly abusive marriage, yearning for a means to think and act for herself. Along comes Michael (Alan Howard), a bookkeeper who frequents the restaurant as well and who also catches the eye of Georgina. They begin having a torrid affair during bathroom breaks and in the kitchen with Richard’s aid in concealing the lust. This is amidst Albert’s complete oblivion to his wife’s inner torture in their marriage. Brutality, increasing deception, literary attentiveness, and the stripping of innocence subsequently occur, culminating in a disturbing yet just finale.

I must mention the glorious set design and cinematography of the film, which I feel further highlights many themes in the film. Firstly, the camerawork is so fluid, gliding from intense, violent imagery to more still and orderly surroundings with gradual, smooth transitions between the scenes. The warehouse design of the kitchen and decadence of the restaurant accents the large class divide and inequities between those served and those being served. The stark white bathrooms represent sanctuary and momentary purity from the stresses of life. The harsh and bright red shades in the dining room are quite intense, showcasing fear, control, anger, and bloodshed. I feel that the calmness of the blues and greens within the kitchen emphasizes the community and loyalty amongst the staff, their strength, and fortitude. While Albert threatens to crumble and invade the white, green, and blue settings, the resiliency of the seemingly “lower class group” and the empowering and fearless Georgina rise to combat his power. Overall, I feel that this film is a perfect blend of genres and use of environmental surroundings showcasing the importance of defending human rights and equity for all in the face of utter repression.


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Medicine in the Movies Blogathon Announcement! May 26 – 28, 2017

Hi to all! As many of you know, I am quite new to the blogging world. I just started in November, but I have been enjoying it so much. One of the best parts of blogging is connecting with others online who share and love very similar interests, and I have been finding that blogathons are such a great way to do that 🙂

I decided to launch my own blogathon with a bit of an offbeat topic. I have always found the topic of “medicine” and its varied portrayal in movies and visual media quite fascinating, as I have a background in public health and medicine. Some portrayals are quite accurate, such as the brilliant TV show Scrubs. Others are not so accurate. Either way, many are entertaining and extremely heartfelt.



So please feel free to write about any movie where there is some relation to medicine! For example, the main characters may be physicians or nurses, or they may be patients and family members dealing with illness.

Duplicates will be allowed but no more than two per movie or topic. However, you are welcome to write more than one post!

Please let me know which movie you wish to discuss! You can post your topic in the comment section below, send me a message through the “Contact” section of my blog, or send me a message through Facebook via the following link: https://www.facebook.com/charsmoviereviews/ I will keep an updated list! Please note the name of your blog and the url. Once your topic is confirmed, please use one of the pictures in this post to spread the word about this blogathon, and please tag “Medicine in the Movies” on the day which you decide to post.

I am excited about this! Happy blogging 🙂

The List So Far

Charlene’s (Mostly) Classic Movie Reviews – A Woman Under the Influence (1974)

Cinematic Scribblings – The Wild Child (1970)

Maddylovesherclassicfilms – The Nun’s Story (1959)

Tranquil Dreams – My Sister’s Keeper (2009)

The Movie Rat – The Diving Bell and the Butterfly (2007)

I Found it at the Movies – All That Jazz (1979)

Silver Screenings – Night Nurse (1931)

Moon In Gemini – Madame Bovary (1949)

Picture Show Girl – High and Dizzy (1920) and Dr. Jack (1922)

Realweegiemidget – K-PAX (2001)

In The Good Old Days Of Classic Hollywood – Judy Garland’s struggle with addiction and Life with Judy Garland: Me and My Shadows (2001)

That William Powell Site – Arrowsmith (1931)

Movie Movie Blog Blog – A Day at the Races (1937)

Movies Silently – Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1912)

Champagne for Lunch – Grounds for Marriage (1951)

The Motion Pictures – Eyewitness (1956)

The Midnite Drive-In – Monk (2002 – 2009)

dbmoviesblog – Spellbound (1945)

Thoughts All Sorts – Tombstone (1993)









Unsung Heroes Blogathon – Myrna Loy

When I first heard of this great idea for a blogathon hosted by KG’s Movie Rants, I could think of no one better to write about than Myrna Loy. After much lobbying from the Writers Guild of America as well as various heavy Hollywood hitters in the form of screenwriters, actors, and directors, Myrna Loy received her Honorary Oscar in 1991 at the old age of 86. Some receiving honorary Oscars have received Academy Award nominations and wins in their careers. It is astonishing and baffling that she did not receive any nominations despite having a body of work including 129 films! If she’s not an unsung hero, I don’t know who is.

Born in 1905 in Montana, Myrna Adele Williams grew up on a humble farm. It was after her father’s death in 1918 that her mother decided to move the family to Los Angeles, as he objected a family uproot to the City of Angels. Once the family was settled, Myrna began participating in local theatrical productions at age 15.

Myrna’s beauty caught the eye of Rudolph Valentino and subsequently Warner Brothers, where her surname was eventually changed to “Loy”. I have not seen any of her silent era films whereby she was often cast in very exotic roles. I am so accustomed to her comedic skills and endearing, relatable characters that it would be difficult to imagine her portraying a femme fatale role. Thankfully, W. S. Van Dyke took a chance and insisted on her being cast in a string of films that would change the course of her career…

The aforementioned director was at the helm of “The Thin Man”, a mystery/comedy film released in 1934 starring charismatic movie star William Powell in addition to Loy. It was released three weeks after their pairing with Clark Gable in the compelling and heartbreaking “Manhattan Melodrama”. Nick and Nora Charles are a couple who are private detectives, whimsically solving criminal cases. The electric chemistry between Powell and Loy was undeniable, launching a franchise of five more “Thin Man” films. They complemented each other extremely well, and were the yin to each other’s yang. Powell’s bravado and Loy’s subtlety made for a captivating movie experience (also, the wire-haired fox terrier Asta helped a lot!).


Many in her repertoire of films showcased her sharp comedic timing. Some of my favourites include “Libeled Lady”, “The Bachelor and the Bobby Soxer”, and “Mr. Blandings Builds His Dream House”. Her co-stars in these films included some of the most magnetic stars in Hollywood – Cary Grant, Jean Harlow (my personal favourite), Spencer Tracy, and Clark Gable. Her dramatic roles were also very impressive. “The Rains Came” is one great example, and her performance in “The Best Years of Our Lives” is simply stunning. Her portrayal of the spouse of a man returning from WWII is a true embodiment and representation of a wife and mother struggling to come to terms with a world and a husband forever changed by the effects of war.

Her roles in the 1950s and beyond were less in frequency than in the previous two decades. As well, her humanitarian work indicated her commitment to the betterment of mankind. She was involved in the Red Cross in WWII, co-chaired theAdvisory Council of the National Committee Against Discrimination in Housing, and was involved in UNESCO later in life. She was also a breast cancer survivor.

It is no doubt that Myrna Loy has a remarkable resume of films, and her talent is just unfathomable. As I learned while writing this post, she is an unsung hero in many ways beyond the world of film.


Fun fact: As a teenager, she posed for a statue entitled “The Fountain of Education” in 1922. It stood in front of Venice High School where she was a student. The statue was replaced in 2010 by a bronze duplicate.


The Sweet Hereafter (1997)

Grief is an unfortunate yet unavoidable process. This can be related to and can include loss of a relationship, job, or physical or emotional loss of a loved one. While there are various stages of grief, each individual handles it differently. They may exact revenge, anger, guilt, or detachment. Regardless, these events are life-altering. They halt the anticipated course of our life trajectory, interrupting any previous sense of rationale we once held. “The Sweet Hereafter”, a 1997 Canadian film directed by Atom Egoyan, explores the complex web of emotions associated with grief and bereavement following great tragedy impacting a rural community in British Columbia.

Mitchell Stephens (Ian Holm), an outside lawyer with a complex and contentious relationship with his daughter Zoe (Caerthan Banks), ventures to a small Canadian town during a harsh winter. He is representing a group of citizens in a class action lawsuit for negligence against their own town and a bus company. We quickly learn the true, heartbreaking nature of this lawsuit – a bus accident claiming the lives of fourteen children. Carefully paced, Stephens unearths the raw reality, fears, and new challenges of those affected by the crash, wrestling with his role in Zoe’s battle with drug addiction.

There are many techniques enhancing storytelling used in this devastating yet beautiful film. Firstly, it is crafted such that the story is out of sequence. This aids to juxtapose between a sorrowful present and a once joyful past, but also to highlight parallels between Stephens’ suffering and that of the community. In addition, “The Pied Piper” is incorporated into the story, showcasing similarities between a legend known to many and this town’s tragedy. Nicole Burnell (Sarah Polley) narrates, and her role as “the lame child” serves as a metaphor for her own fate. As a whole, these techniques enhance the palpability of the film’s catastrophic truths.

“The Sweet Hereafter” is spoken within a phrase near the end of the film. Nicole recites that the once united community is now emotionally disbanded, living separate “strange and new” lives in the “sweet hereafter”. I initially felt that there is a great sense of irony in the title, as the future following a mass casualty seems quite grim. However, in the process of grief, acceptance is generally deemed as the final stage. I do not believe that we “move on” from tragic events as they will forever be imprinted in our memories, but we try to create a new sense of normalcy through an understanding and acceptance of our past. Through this, we may be able to find peace and meaning in the new paths we forge.


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This is part of the Ultimate 90’s Blogathon hosted by Kim from Tranquil Dreams and Drew from Drew’s Movie Reviews. Please head on over and check out the other awesome entries!


Favourite All-Time Oscar Winners

Tonight is the ultimate night where by Hollywood glamour is thrust into the epicentre of limelight, celebrating the film achievements and creations throughout the past year – the Academy Awards. This extravaganza has ballooned in its significance and grandeur since its humble beginnings on May 16, 1929. Whether you agree or disagree with its relevance in the motion picture industry, the overall quality of films recognized by the Academy for nearly a century have been extraordinary.

The following include some of my favourite Oscar winners. It was very difficult to narrow down some choices to say the least. As spoken on the granddaddy of all classic film channels (Turner Classic Movies), “let’s movie!”

Best Picture: Forrest Gump

Best Director: David Lean, Lawrence of Arabia

Best Actor: Sir Anthony Hopkins, The Silence of the Lambs

Best Actress: Vivien Leigh, A Streetcar Named Desire

Best Supporting Actor: Joel Grey, Cabaret

Best Supporting Actress: Anne Baxter, The Razor’s Edge

Best Original Screenplay (tie): Charles Brackett, D. M. Marshman Jr., Billy Wilder, Sunset Boulevard/Woody Allen, Midnight in Paris

Best Adapted Screenplay: Joseph L. Mankiewicz, All About Eve

Best Cinematography: Black and White: George Barnes, Rebecca/Colour: Sven Nykvist, Cries and Whispers

Best Original Score: Maurice Jarre, Lawrence of Arabia

Best Foreign Language Film: Ingmar Bergman (Sweden), Through a Glass Darkly

Best Costume Design (tie): Theodor Pistek, Amadeus

I apologize as I know I didn’t include every Oscar category. Please discuss the categories in the comments below! I love and welcome all film discussion. I would also like to give a shoutout to Carol from The Old Hollywood Garden for giving me this idea 🙂

It’s the most wonderful night of the year for Oscar lovers! Enjoy!! 🙂 the-oscars-thumbnail

I do not own the above image





The American Friend (1977)

The art and mastery of deception have been approached by many and accomplished by few. Distinguishing features discerning individuals’ capabilities in this realm include narcissism, antisocial traits, and overall lack of empathy. Those with these aforementioned traits may slide into the world of fraudulence with great ease while those with higher levels of compassion and appreciation of others’ needs undoubtedly experience guilt. However, particular needs, desires, and goals may create drive to bypass emotions associated with guilt to fulfill immoral acts. Wim Winders’ 1977 neo-noir “The American Friend” based on Patricia Highsmith’s 1974 novel “Ripley’s Game” wholeheartedly explores this concept with a humble frame-maker at the epicentre of this dilemma.

Jonathan Zimmermann (Bruno Ganz) is, as already mentioned, an owner of a frame-making shop in Hamburg with an extremely rare hematological malady. He has an initial icy encounter with wealthy American “cowboy” and art forgery extraordinaire Tom Ripley (Dennis Hopper) at an art auction. French gangster Raoul Minot (Gerard Blain) subsequently asks Ripley to kill members of a rival crime syndicate. Displeased by this interaction with the frame-maker, Ripley indirectly rights this disdainful encounter by setting up Zimmermann as a lowly assassin for this purpose. Unsuspecting and honest Zimmermann is thus carefully manipulated and deeply thrust into the once unknown crime underworld with financial coercion.

Many elements of this film create synergy in its effective delivery of suspense and urgency. The slow buildup of knowingly future tense scenes produces a sense of dread, desperation, and bewilderment. I feel that this necessary technique pays homage to the film noir aura, and especially the style of Hitchcock. The dissimilar and plot-enhancing fast-paced train sequence pays homage to “Shadow of a Doubt” and “Strangers on a Train”, the latter which is based on a novel of the same name written by Highsmith. I also believe that he contrasting vast scenery of Hamburg and claustrophobic images within rooms amplify the conflicted and tormented inner selves of the main characters.

Ultimately, Ripley and Zimmermann establish a mutual agreement. Some may even call it a friendship, with Ripley being “the American friend”. However, there is a lack of genuineness and sense of hypocrisy in the contextual use of the word. This amicability was built on lies, murder, initial disrespect, and exploitation. I believe that both used each other as means to an end in their pursuits, which is unfortunately how some so-called “friendships” operate in the real world. Roots of jealousy and conspiracy can grow from either acquaintances or perceivably strong friendships, leading to a destructive snowball effect. It is therefore imperative that honesty, humility, respect, and true care serve as the foundation for any relationship.


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